What is the use of kidneys?The kidneys are vital supporting organs and they help to keep the blood pure and chemically balanced. Kidneys help in:
- Filtering the blood to remove the waste products
- They maintain the electrolyte and water content in the body.
- They secrete necessary hormones like ‘renin’. Renin helps to keep the blood pressure normal.
What can be done if kidneys fail?If your doctor feels that your kidneys are not functioning properly, then depending on the percentage of the kidneys that are damaged, the doctor will suggest a further course of action. The following course of action can be suggested:
- Diet management
- Injection of EPO every week
- Kidney transplant
What are the Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)?
When is Dialysis needed?Dialysis is needed when you lose about 85 to 90 per cent of your kidney stops functioning. This is indicated by a GFR of <15.
What does dialysis do?Dialysis helps to keep your body balanced by:
- Removing toxins from the body
- Removing extra salts or water from the body
- Maintaining the proper level of chemicals in your body
- Controls blood pressure
Do the kidneys ever recover?This depends on a variety of factors like:
- Age of the patient
- Clinical history
- Prevalence of other diseases
- Type of kidney failure
- Lifestyle habits
Where can dialysis be done?Dialysis can be done at the following places depending on which type of dialysis you choose.
- At home
- At a hospital
- At a dialysis unit that is not a part of a hospital (we have a dialysis centre in Vadodara)
What are the different types of dialysis?There are two different types of dialysis.
- Peritoneal dialysis
HemodialysisThis is the most commonly opted dialysis. In Hemodialysis a dialysis machine is used. A special machine filter called an ‘artificial kidney or dialyzer’ is used to clean the impure blood outside the body. In order to get your blood into the dialyzer, we make short access to your blood vessels and usually it is done in the arm or neck. This needs to be done at the dialysis centre. In Vadodara, at Janvi Multispeciality Hospital, we have a special unit dedicated as ‘Dialysis Centre’ Blood passes into the machine, it gets filtered and then again it is pumped into the body. But this procedure requires time. Generally, each session requires 4 hours of time.
Risks associated with Hemodialysis
- low blood pressure
- anaemia, or not having enough red blood cells
- muscle cramping
- difficulty sleeping
- high blood potassium levels
- pericarditis, an inflammation of the membrane around the heart
- bacteremia, or a bloodstream infection
- irregular heartbeat
- sudden cardiac death, the leading cause of death in people undergoing dialysis
Peritoneal DialysisWhile Hemodialysis attempts to filter outside the body, Peritoneal dialysis attempts to clean the blood inside the body. This is done by inserting a tube called a ‘catheter’ into your abdomen to create access. During the treatment, the abdominal area is slowly filled with dialysate with the help of a catheter. Thereafter the blood stays in the arteries and veins that line your peritoneal cavity/abdominal cavity. The extra fluid and the waste products are drained out into a dialysate. The reason why we use the abdomen(the peritoneum) as the filter is that the peritoneum contains many tiny vessels that help in filtering the blood.
Two Types of Peritoneal dialysis:
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD):CAPD is a ‘Continuous and machine free process’. With it, you can carry on your normal activities. In this treatment, nearly two quarts of cleansing fluid is placed into your belly and later it is drained. This process is done gradually. It is done by hooking up a plastic bag of cleansing fluid to your shoulder level. The gravitational force pulls the fluid into the belly. The only problem is that this process needs to be done four or five times a day for almost 40 minutes.
Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD)In the case of CAPD you have a cleaning fluid pumped into your belly to clean the blood whereas in APD it is the machine- first delivers and later drains the cleaning fluid. It is usually done overnight.
Risks associated with Peritoneal dialysis include:
- abdominal muscle weakening
- high blood sugar due to the dextrose in the dialysate
- weight gain
- stomach pain
Tips for choosing a dialysis centreDepending on your health conditions, dialysis is going to be a long term and costly affair. So you should choose a dialysis centre wisely. You can choose a dialysis centre after considering the following points:
- The location from your place
- Paying a personal visit to the place to judge about the cleanliness protocols that it follows
- The mode of transport
- The permissibility of your nephrologists visiting the dialysis centre
- Available schedules
- Cost per sitting
There are 3 main types of dialysis: in-center hemodialysis, home hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis. You can always change the mode of dialysis.
Depending on the types of dialysis, you can experience different side effects. The most common side effects of hemodialysis include low blood pressure, access site infection, muscle cramps, itchy skin, and blood clots. The most common side effects of peritoneal dialysis include peritonitis, hernia, blood sugar changes, potassium imbalances, and weight gain.
Dialysis is an effective way to reduce the serum uric acid level.
The good news is that acute kidney failure can often be reversed. Until they start functioning like before dialysis is needed.
Dialysis is a treatment for people whose kidneys are failing. Dialysis is needed when kidneys cannot filter the blood. Dialysis purifies the blood outside the body, removes the toxins and then pumps it again into the body.
- Water retention/swelling of legs and feet.
- Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.
- Shortness of breath.
- Insomnia and sleep issues.
- Itchiness, cramps, and muscle twitches.
- Passing very little or no urine.
- Drowsiness and fatigue.
It depends on whether you have acute renal failure or chronic kidney failure. Generally, in cases of AKI, patients recover.
Recovery rates ranged between 10% and 15% within the first 30 days of dialysis initiation, but nearly half of patients who recovered kidney function did so within 90 days after dialysis initiation. Few patients recovered after 180 days of outpatient chronic dialysis.
No. Dialysis does some of the work of healthy kidneys, but it does not cure your kidney disease. You will need to have dialysis treatments for your whole life unless you can get a kidney transplant.
No. The dialysis treatment itself is painless. But some patients experience a drop in their blood pressure that could lead to nausea, vomiting, headaches, or cramps.
Several studies have shown that dialysis does not guarantee a survival benefit for people over age 75 who have medical problems like dementia or ischemic heart disease in addition to end-stage kidney disease.
Sodas. According to the American Kidney Fund, a recent study suggests that drinking two or more carbonated sodas, diet or regular, each day may increase your risk for chronic kidney disease. Carbonated and energy drinks have both been linked to the formation of kidney stones.
It depends on which type of kidney failure you have. If it is acute kidney failure, you can recover and dialysis can be stopped whereas in the case of chronic kidney disease it cannot be stopped.
Creatinine levels that reach 2.0 or more in babies and 5.0 or more in adults may indicate severe kidney impairment.
- Sea bass
- Red grapes
- Egg whites
- Olive oil
Yes, Water helps the kidneys remove wastes from your blood in the form of urine. Water also helps keep your blood vessels open so that blood can travel freely to your kidneys, and deliver essential nutrients to them.
Here are some tips to help keep your kidneys healthy.
- Keep active and fit
- Control your blood sugar
- Monitor blood pressure
- Monitor weight and eat a healthy diet
- Drink plenty of fluids
- Don’t smoke
- Be aware of the amount of OTC pills you take
- Have your kidney function tested if you’re at high risk
- A metallic taste in the mouth or ammonia breath.
- Protein aversion (no longer wanting to eat meat)
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Difficulty concentrating.
- Loss of appetite.
- Itchiness (pruritus)